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四月號/April:女性、職場、媒體

(WOMEN, THE WORKPLACE, THE MEDIA)

 

【編輯專欄】

 

經過一個月的苦心編纂與譯校,這一期相較於創刊號,顯然更為豐富有趣了。我們試圖提供更多不同面向的新聞,特別聚焦於職場與媒體兩大議題,希望能稍微彌補國內新聞在性別議題關注上長久的缺席,並提供讀者從國際焦點反思台灣的契機。請大家慢慢看,增進知識也增進常識喔!

楊芳枝  

(國立成功大學臺灣文學系教授暨性別與婦女研究中心主任)

 

【本月主題一】職場女性

 

Sheryl Sandberg: Why We Have Too Few Women LeadersTED

謝樂爾•桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg):為什麼我們的女性領袖太少

Facebook首席運營官 Sheryl   Sandberg 注意到,相較於男性,較少百分比的女性能達到專業的頂峰 -- 並針對婦女最高管理層提供3個有力建議:

  1. 坐在會議桌/談判桌上而不要只待在角落。女性必須相信且追求成功。女人常常低估了自己的能力,在工作場所怯於談判,並把她們的成功歸諸其他外部因素,反之男人卻總將之歸功於自己。在職場,男人的成功會受人肯定,但女人在職場上的成功卻常被認為是不討喜的。我們應該把女人的成功與受人喜愛連結在一起。 
  2. 讓妳的伴侶成為妳真正的伴侶。並真正分擔家務。
  3. 別在離開職場前放棄。舉例來說,曾有女性因為將來可能會結婚生子,而放棄升遷,但當時她甚至還沒有男友。 Sheryl Sandberg認為,女性應該持續接受工作中的挑戰、全力以赴,別因為將來可能有孩子而太早放棄。

相關資料:臉書營運長桑柏格:讓更多女性坐上桌子的首席


 

Columbia Students Continue the Long Tradition Of Women Fighting For   Labor Rightspolicymic

哥倫比亞大學繼續維持女大學生爭取勞工權利的悠久傳統

In   recent years, Columbia University has been the site of a series of ongoing   labor disputes —disputes so outrageous, in fact, that the situation   called for some old- fashioned grassroots organizing.

 

Last   fall, I helped start a student activist group, Student-Worker Solidarity (SWS),   when the Barnard College desk attendants and clerical workers fought along battle to secure a fair work   contract with an increasingly corporate administration. This semester,   SWS is spearheading a campaign to support the Faculty House dining hall workers, mostly immigrants   and people of color who have seen little-to-no wage increases in the past   decade, who are systematically laid off during academic breaks, and are the   victims of wage theft.

 

As   one shop leader declared to the crowd at our last rally,   “We are slave laborers … we have been sitting on the back of the bus for too

long.   We demand to come forward.”

近年來,哥倫比亞大學正面對一連串勞資糾紛,而此狀況已達到極為惡劣的地步,需要舊式的地方基層組織來幫勞工解決狀況。

去年秋天,當巴納德學院諮詢台的服務員和文書人員在和日益企業化的行政組織爭取公平的工作契約時,我協助成立『學生工作團體』(SWS)來幫助他們。這學期,學生工作團體開始支持校內食堂工作人員們為爭取權益而採取的抗爭。這些勞工,大部分是移民和有色人種,在過去十年間,他們幾乎不曾加薪,或在學校放假期間被解雇,他們是企業偷竊薪資的被害者

 

 就如同一個團體領導者所宣示的:「我們是奴隸勞工……長久以來,我們一直坐在巴士末端。我們要求向前走。」

 


It's More   Dangerous Than Ever to Be a Female War ReporterThe Atlantic

比起過去 現今女性從事戰地記者是更危險的

Anne   Sebba, a biographer and former Reuters correspondent in Rome. ……The new   edition of Battling for News, Sebba's 1994 history of women reporters, is a   story of women's competence in the field overcoming sexism against them.

 

But   while she acknowledges that a lot has changed for the better, Sebba has given   the new introduction to Battling for News a downbeat spin. (The book will be re-released in the UK in April.) While   inherent bias in journalism has eased, changes in media technology and combat   tactics have put women reporters in physical peril.

 

So   that puts men and women under pressure. But women are targeted more, because   a lot of these conflicts are now in Muslim countries, who see Western women   wearing provocative--that's their word, not mine--provocative clothes, and   therefore, they feel, the West has to be taught a lesson, that they're fair   targets, fair game.

 

The   other thing I've learnt is that male editors, and particularly television   editors, are exploiting women. More women than men graduate in media studies.   They don't know how to find a fixer; they don't know about weaponry; they   don't know where is safe, where is not safe--they just want to prove   themselves. So they might end up in a really dangerous trouble spot without   adequate preparation. And because you're hardly paid, it's often the young,   inexperienced girls who are prepared to do it. And the editors are prepared   to exploit them because it makes exciting news.

安‧席拔(Anne Sebba),一名傳記作者,同時也是前路透社駐羅馬記者。她於1994年出版的女性報導史《Battling for News》,講述女性記者在新聞界中如何克服性別歧視。

 

雖然過往她曾稱,許多事情已經好轉了,但在今年即將重新出版的《Battling for News》中,她卻給了一個較悲觀的看法。即使新聞界內部的性別歧視已經減輕了,但媒體科技與戰爭策略的改變,卻讓女性記者的身體受到毀滅的危險。

 

雖然男人和女人都會承受壓力,但有更多壓力是針對女性而來的。因為現今有許多衝突發生於穆斯林國家,而這些國家認為西方女性的衣著具有「挑逗性」,所以穆斯林國家的人認為,必須給她們一個教訓,而且這是十分合理的行為。

另一件我學到的事,是男性編輯(特別是電視編輯),都會剝削女性。從媒體研究學門中畢業的女性較男性為多,她們並不曉得誰是關鍵人物、不了解武器、不明白何處安全而何處不安全,她們只是急著證明自己。因此,她們可能在沒有足夠的準備下,就被置於一個極度危險的處境中。而因為薪資微薄,通常只有年輕、經驗不足的女性,才會願意做這些事。這些編輯也樂意去剝削她們,以製造聳動的新聞。

 

Most Women Would Rather Divorce   Than Be a HousewifeBlogHer

大部分的女人寧可離婚也不願意當家庭主婦

The   vast majority of young people -- about 80% of women and 70% of men across all   races, classes, and family backgrounds -- desire an egalitarian marriage in   which both partners share breadwinning, housekeeping, and child rearing. The data come from Kathleen   Gerson's fabulous 2010 book, The   Unfinished Revolution

 

 However, egalitarian relationships are   difficult to establish. Both work and family are "greedy   institutions,"ones that take up lots of time and energy. Many couples   find that, once children arrive, it's impossible for both to do both with   equal gusto.

 

She discovered that, while men’s and   women’s ideals are   very similar, their fallback   positions deviate dramatically. Men’s most   common fallback position is to establish a neotraditional division of labor:   70% hope to convince their wives to de-prioritize their careers and focus on   homemaking and raising children. Women? Faced with a husband who wants them   to be a housewife or work part-time, almost three-quarters of women say they   would choose divorce and raise their kids alone.

絕大部分的年輕人──跨越種族、階級和家庭背景,約80%的女性和70%的男性──渴望一個平等的婚姻,雙方能共同養家餬口、整理家事和教養子女。此數據出自2010年凱瑟琳‧格爾森(Kathleen Gerson)巨著《未完成的革命》(The Unfinished Revolution)。

然而,要實踐平等關係是特別困難的。工作和家庭兩者皆屬於需要花費大量時間和精力的「貪婪的機構」。許多夫妻發現,一旦孩子出生之後,兩人是不可能以平等的熱情去做這兩件事情的。

 

她發現,男性和女性的理想是相似的,但他們在一番衡量後的出路卻有顯著的差異。大部分男性希望建立一個新傳統的分工模式:70%的男性希望說服他們的太太延後就業的優先順序,並專心在家務和教養孩子。而女人?當丈夫希望他們身任家庭主婦同時兼職工作時,幾乎四分之三的女人認為,她們寧可離婚或獨自撫養小孩。

 

【本月主題二】性別與媒體

 

Four Reasons Gay Culture Loves   Shows About Straight Older Women

bitch media

男同性戀文化喜愛熟女節目的四種因素

黃金女郎或是Designing Women這類以四十歲以上熟女為主、並強調婦女自信有力的電視喜劇,向來為男同志所愛。在好萊塢的異性戀中心主義和年齡歧視運作下,我們看不到太多有關熟女的電視節目。

I would   posit that the very reasons gay men like these shows are the reasons we need   more female characters over 40 on television (and maybe the reasons we don’t   see enough of them, given the hetero-centrism and ageism of Hollywood   decision-making):

 

一、These women are super-confident

二、They offer another side of life besides   marriage and children.

三、The shows talk for real about sex.

四、They prioritized friendship.

然而我認為,男同志之所以喜歡熟女所主演的電視劇,與我們需要更多四十歲以上女性為主角的電視節目,兩者的原因是相同的。這些包括:

  

 

一、這些婦女是非常有自信的。

二、他們擁有除了婚姻和孩子的其他生活面向。

三、這些節目談的是真的性。

四、他們以友誼為優先。

 

 

UNESCO Launches Women Make the News 2013UNESCO

教科文組織於2013年發起女性撰寫新聞活動

On the occasion of International   Women’s Day (IWD), 8 March, UNESCO joins forces with international and   regional partners to launch the annual Women Make the News (WMN) initiative   under the theme, “Towards a Global Alliance on Media and Gender”. This year’s   theme is related to the Global Forum on Media and Gender   (GFMG) to be held in November 2013. It is our intention to draw attention to   the need for a global means, including media partnerships, to follow-up on   the gender and media objectives of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for   Action.

 

 

The theme of the United Nations   observance of IWD 2013 is “A Promise is a Promise: Time for Action to End   Violence Against Women.” This theme will be one of the main topics to be   addressed during the Global Forum on Media and Gender. Another key topic will   be integrating media in national gender policies and strategies.

在國際婦女節的週年場合,聯合國教科文組織與全球暨區域性的夥伴,以「媒體與性別的全球論壇」為主題,發起「婦女撰寫新聞」活動。今年的主題,與201311月舉辦的「媒體和性別全球論壇GFMG)」相關。我們的用意在於找出一個適於全球性需求的方法(包含媒體的合夥關係),以此作為「北京宣言行動綱領」中性別與媒體兩項目標的後續發展。

 2013年聯合國慶祝婦女節的主題是「確切的承諾:採取行動制止對婦女的暴力」。該主題將是媒體和性別全球討論會的重要主題之一。其他關鍵課題則是將媒體整合於國家性別政治和策略當中。

 

 

Bad girls: A history of   unladylike behaviourThe Independent

 壞女孩:非嫻淑行為的歷史

Domestic and demure. Neat and   sweet. Sugar and spice and all things nice… but what happens when girls go   bad? It's a subject that has long fascinated, and titillated, the press,   public, and politicians, from whispers over 'fallen women' in the past to   drunken 'sluts' slumped in the gutter in 2013. Now a new book, Girl Trouble,   by the cultural historian Carol Dyhouse, explores the history of our moral   panics over rebel girls, from the late-19th century onwards.

 

 

Dyhouse found herself "more   and more interested in rebel girls, bad girls, the ones who went off the   rails. They're not exactly feminist, but they're representing a discontent   with what's in front of them. It allows you an insight into the constraints   young women have operated under. "

馴化且端莊,乾淨而甜美。女孩在各方面都像糖果與香料一樣美好……那如果女孩變壞了,會發生什麼事情呢?從過去關於墮落女人的細語,到現今醉倒陰溝的蕩婦,長久以來,這個問題始終撩撥、吸引著記者、公眾、和政治家的注意。現在,新書《Girl Trouble》,由文化史學家Carol Dyhouse帶讀者探討十九世紀末以來對「叛逆女孩」的道德恐慌史。

戴豪斯(Dyhouse)發現她自身對於壞女孩的研究興趣越來越強烈。壞女孩,是一超越常規的存在,她們並非女性主義者,但她們表達對自身遭遇的種種不滿。探索壞女孩,可以讓你了解年輕女孩如何操作加諸她們身上的社會限制。

 

 

【國際其他】

 

Women Face Fight to Keep Their Rights in Tunisia

The New York   Times

在突尼西亞,女性為了自身權利必須面對爭鬥

Tunisia,   perceived by the West as the most secular country in the Arab world and a   staunch promoter of women’s rights, has gone through a rocky transition since   the revolution two years ago that ousted President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.   While political pluralism exists for the first time in decades, new freedoms   for some are threatening long-cherished ones for others — in particular those   for Tunisian women.

 

After   Tunisia gained its independence from France in 1956, the government passed   laws to expand women’s rights, including the right to education and gender   equality. Over the following decades, Islamists were persecuted and exiled   while the government pushed the secularization of society to such an extent   that a decree in 1981 banned women from wearing a veil in public buildings   and universities.

 

After   the fall of Mr. Ben Ali’s regime, the Ennahda party won elections in October   2011 with a comfortable majority. Since then, worries have grown that one of   its aims is to restrict women’s freedoms in a country where, until recently,   those rights had been taken for granted for decades.

被西方視為最世俗的阿拉伯國家和女性權力最堅毅的促進者──突尼西亞,自從兩年前總理阿里班Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali)被推翻,已經經歷困難重重的轉變。儘管政治多元化在過去十年來首次存在,對於一些人而言,他們得來的新自由卻正威脅著長久被珍惜的他人的自由──特別是那些突尼西亞婦女的自由。

 

自從1956年突尼斯從法國獲得獨立後,政府通過法律擴大婦女的權利,包括教育和性別平等的權利。接下來的幾十年,當政府推動社會世俗化之際,伊斯蘭主義者被受迫害和流放,例如1981年禁止婦女在公共場合和大學內戴頭紗的法令。

 

 

本‧阿里政權(Mr. Ben Ali’s regime)倒台後,復興運動黨(Ennahda party)以多數票贏得2011年選戰。從那時開始,人們日益擔心這十年來所爭取的權益將受到侵犯。

 

 

Women Killed as ‘Witches,’   in Papua New Guinea, in 2013

The New York   Times

2013年在巴布亞新幾內亞,女性被指控為「女巫」且慘遭殺害

在巴布亞新幾內亞,一名二十歲的女性被指控為女巫,在眾人前其被以燒紅的熱鐵折磨,並將其活活燒死。因為該名女性被指控擁有巫術,認為其對一位六歲男童施加巫術,最終導致男童死亡。

The   year 2013 or not, such violence against women is not uncommon in Papua New   Guinea, where “witches” (in reality just women, often older ones) may be   blamed when things go wrong, a reflection of the powerful belief in sorcery   in Papua New Guinea, a Pacific nation just north of Australia. Women are   often identified as witches and   attacked when a man, or child, dies   unexpectedly.

 

But   there may be other reasons. As the Australian international television station   Australia Network reported, in a resource-rich country undergoing a boom,   accusing a woman of being a witch is an easy way to take her land.

 

Dame   Carol Kidu, a Papua New Guinean politician, told the station: “There are   other things involved nowadays, like greed, acquisition of people’s   properties and land, and all sorts of things might be all be tied up in all   of this, using killing the sorcerers as a reason to acquire land.”

 

從以前至今,巴布亞新幾內亞對婦女施暴的情況始終存在,當事情不順遂時,往往會責難「女巫」(實際上只是女性,又通常是較年老的),這反映了巴布亞新幾內亞(一個位於澳洲北方的太平洋島國)強大的巫術信仰。當一個男人或男孩死亡時,婦女往往被視為女巫、備受攻擊。

 

但其中或許還有其他原因。就像澳洲澳大利亞國際電視台網絡的報導,在資源豐富的國家,指責女性為巫女,是奪取她們土地的簡便方法。

 

一位巴布亞新幾內亞的政治家Dame   Carol Kidu認為:「有許多事情隱藏在背後,比如人性的貪婪、收購人的利益和土地獲取……各式各樣的原因混雜在一起,成為殺害「女巫」以獲取土地的理由。」

 

 

Indonesia's   Sexual Education RevolutionThe New York   Times

印尼的性教育革命

(中文翻譯取自紐約時報中文網)

Dozens of teenagers who had just   finished a Planned Parenthood training session met with a local official in   this provincial capital and questioned him about the lack of sex education in   their schools. The meeting was part of a   larger effort to push for legislation that would make sex education a   mandatory part of Indonesia’s national curriculum. 

 

Andreas is one of   hundreds of students who have been trained as peer educators by Planned   Parenthood in Yogyakarta, a province with one of the country’s most progressive   reproductive rights communities. The hope is that they will pass along   information about H.I.V./AIDS, contraception and sexual orientation to their   classmates, most of whom learn about sex through the Internet.

 

Planned Parenthood in   Yogyakarta has been providing sex education since 2008. More than 50 schools   in Yogyakarta Province have agreed to start using the organization’s   curriculum, which includes lessons about contraception and sexually   transmitted diseases. The Yogyakarta curriculum has been used a loose model   for the proposed national one.

一名當地官員在這一省級特區的首府會見了數十名剛剛上完「計劃生育」(Planned Parenthood)培訓課的青少年,並被問及為什麼他們的學校缺少性教育。這次會見是推動立法、使性教育成為印尼國家課程必修科目的一次重大努力。

 

安德里亞斯是日惹計劃生育培訓班培訓的數百名將出任同輩小教育者的學生之一。作為省一級的地方特區,日惹是該國在生殖權利方面最進步的社區之一。培訓專案希望他們能夠將有關愛滋病毒/愛滋病、避孕和性取向等方面的資訊傳遞給他們的同學。在印尼,青少年大多通過網路獲取性知識。

日惹計劃生育組織自2008年就開始提供性教育。在省級行政區日惹,有超過50所學校已同意開始使用該組織的課程,而這其中就包括有關避孕和性傳播疾病的內容。為向全國推廣,日惹課程採取了一種比較寬鬆的模式。

 

 

【國內專題】男女工酬

 

推動男女同工同酬今天是「同酬日」

【China Times】

“Same Job, Equal Pay”-- Today is the “Equal Pay   Day”

今天(32)是台灣的「同酬日」,根據勞委會的統計資料,台灣女性要比男性多工作61天,才能拿到和男性相同的待遇,台灣男女薪資水準仍然有16.6%的差距,但和先進國家相比,已經是「優等生」的水準。

Today (2   March) is the “Equal Pay Day” in Taiwan. According to the statistics from the   Council of Labor Affairs, women in Taiwan have to work 61 days more than men   in order to get the same pay. The wage gap between men and women is 16.6% in   Taiwan. Compared with other developed countries, Taiwan is doing fairly   well.

相關新聞:男女同工不同酬 立委:落實平等法

 

 【國內其他】

 

先別管印度了,你知道台灣的性侵害現況嗎?(數說台灣)

Put India   Aside, Do You Know The Current Conditions of Sexual Assault in Taiwan?

在台灣,性侵害案件數量以每年將近15%的速度成長。超過10%的受害者為男性。性侵害最常發生在當事人家裡,包括被害人和加害人家裡。而學校教室也是高危險地區。

The number of sexual assaults reaches an annual growth   of 15%. More than 10% of the victims are male. The place most sexual assaults   take place is in the family, either the victims’ or the offenders’ family.   Another place is the classroom.


【重要書籍/作者簡介】

 

Beyond Bodice-Rippers: How Romance Novels Came to Embrace FeminismThe Atlantic

超越傳統羅曼史:羅曼史如何擁抱女性主義

 "Bodice-rippers,"   the most famous term associated with the romance genre are, according to the   book Beyond Heaving Bosoms: ""typically set in the past, and   the hero is a great deal older, more brutal, and more rapetastic than the   heroine." The heroines were young, virginal women whose purity was of   paramount importance to their worth. The rapist-turned-true-love hero was a   standard character.

 

Bodice-rippers and their   contemporary counterparts were popular during the 1970s, occupying the same   cultural space as the feminist movement but seeming to represent its polar   opposite. As feminists were fighting patriarchy, romance novels were propping   it up. Despite a major shift in the genre in the late 1980s and early 1990s   that saw the near-disappearance of rape and the emergence of much stronger,   more modern heroines, the idea remains that feminists and romance readers   exist on opposite ends of the spectrum. This is not the case.

 

Dr. Jackie C. Horne, a writer,   independent scholar, and author of the site Romance Novels for Feminists, says that the women   who now write romance novels grew up enjoying the benefits of the feminist   movement. These authors, Horne says, "take feminist ideas that were once   novel, provocative, on the very edge of inconceivable for granted, as   givens." In Alice Clayton's Wallbanger   and Lauren Dane's Lush, both   heroines are adamant that their careers not suffer in order to make a   relationship work. They negotiate long-term committed relationships with men   who treat them as equals. And, as is par for the course in most romance   novels, these women seek out sexual pleasure and they enjoy sex. These are   not the romances of the 1970s.

連結至浪漫史的流行詞彙「Bodice-rippers」,是根據《Beyond Heaving Bosoms》此書所言:「過去的典型情節,比起女主角,男主角是年事較高、殘酷的、喜愛強迫式性愛者。女主角則是年輕的、重視自我價值的處女。典型的男主角常被設定為「從強暴轉為真愛」。

 

 

Bodice-rippers和其相對人物盛行於1970年代,像女權運動般佔據相同文化空間,但又看似呈現其它的對立面。浪漫小說作為支持女性主義者對抗父權制度。儘管1980年代晚期至1990年代早期文類的重要轉變,顯示強暴幾近消失、強者及更多現代女強人的出現。然而,此想法使女性主義者和浪漫小說讀者保持在概念的兩端。

 

  

 

獨立學者暨作家、同時也是網站Romance   Novels for Feminists的作者Dr. Jackie C.   Horne認為,現今寫羅曼史小說的女性,已成長到開始享受女權運動所帶來的益處。Horne認為這些作家,「繼承過往女性主義極為新穎、挑釁的思維,且用理所當然的優勢姿態展現於書中。」在Alice   Clayton的《Wallbanger》和 Lauren Dane的《Lush》中,兩位女主角都堅信她們的事業與她們的感情不可偏廢。她們與那些平等對待她們的男性,商議一段長期關係。而且,就像意料中的一樣,這些羅曼史小說中的女性,尋求性愉悅、享受性愛。這都不似1970年代的羅曼史小說。

 

 

 

Women's   Magazines Objectify Women Just as Much as Men's Magazines Do

The Atlantic

女性雜誌對女性的物化並不亞於男性雜誌

One curious thing about popular culture is that men's   magazines and women's magazines often follow the same general formula. Men's magazines   are mostly based around heavily eroticized images of women. And women's   magazines are also based around heavily eroticized images of women.

 

Still,   doing the same thing for different audiences ends up not being quite the same   thing after all. Esquire is providing female bodies for   men. It is telling men (as the editor himself says) that female bodies are   objects to be used for their enjoyment. This is a pretty common message; men   are in general and in lots of ways are told, day in, day out, that the world   is organized for their erotic pleasure.

 

Women's   magazines, on the other hand, are providing female bodies for women, and   telling women that (other) female bodies are   objects to be used for their enjoyment. This is a much less prevalent   message, and it's not hard to figure out why so many women find it so   appealing. In most ways, in most of the culture, women are told that their   gazes and their pleasures are secondary. In women's magazines, though, those   gazes and those pleasures are paramount. Women get to be in the position of   power, looking at and consuming bodies displayed expressly for them.

 

Men's   and women's magazines, in this sense, really are different. Esquire retails yet another fantasy of   mastery for men. Women's magazines, on the other hand, offer a fantasy of   mastery for women.

流行文化中有個奇怪的現象──男性雜誌與女性雜誌遵循著相同的公式。男性雜誌基本上常圍繞著充滿色慾的女性圖像,而女性雜誌也同樣如此。

 

不過,即使做法相同,他們畢竟不完全一樣。男性之所以在雜誌中提供女性的身體給男性讀者,是為了告訴男人們(就像編輯者自言):女性身體是供他們享樂的客體。這是一個很常見的訊息;男人日復一日地被告知:這個世界是基於他們的性愉悅而組成的。

 

另一方面,女性雜誌則是提供女性身體給它們的讀者群,並告訴她們這些女人的身體是用來讓她們享樂的客體。這個訊息很少被承認,但我們也不難理解為什麼這麼多女人喜歡女性雜誌的女體。在大多數文化中,很多時候女性常被告知她們的目光(凝視)與快樂都是次要的;但在女性雜誌中,她們的目光(凝視)與快樂卻是最重要的。女性在此
 
藉由觀看並消費這些為了她們而陳列的女體取得了具有權力的位置。

因此,男性與女性雜誌在這層意義上是截然不同的。「Esquire」男性雜誌販售的只是另一個讓男人具有掌握權的幻想,而女性雜誌,從另一方面而言,則提供女人掌握權的幻想。

 

 

A New Book That   (Finally) Tells the Truth About the Rise of WomenIt's More Dangerous Than   Ever to Be a Female War ReporterThe Atlantic

書評:一本(終於)訴說婦女崛起真實面貌的新書

The Rise of Women: The Growing Gender   Gap in Education and What it Means for American Schools is both ambitious and   modest in its goals: Sociologists Thomas DiPrete and Claudia Buchmann provide   an ambitious analysis of why and how girls are outperforming boys in high   school and going on to get a disproportionate share of college degrees.   However, the authors modestly remain within their subject matter and avoid   the unsupported claims about women's looming social dominance that have   inflated much of the conversation about gender dynamics today.

 

This allows us to have a reasonable,   valuable conversation about an important problem: the failure of the   education system to help a majority of students to reach their academic   potential. We clearly do not have a problem of over-education among women.   Even among Whites alone, women as well as men are graduating college at rates   lower than those in the most educationally advanced societies (which used to   include the United States). Rather, we have a dysfunctional system that   underperforms for men more than for women.

 

Although women are more likely to   graduate college and get some advanced degrees than men are today, there is   nothing in this trend that implies women will surpass men in overall earnings   or economic (much less political) power in the foreseeable future. Further,   women's educational advantage is not so great that they will overcome the   labor-market advantages that men have at all educational levels.

社會學家蒂莫西•托馬斯Thomas DiPrete克勞蒂亞‧布奇曼(Claudia Buchmann)所著的『女性的崛起:教育體系中日益擴大的性別鴻溝及其對美國教育的意義』,此書的目標是有野心又適度的─他們分析在高中階段女孩的表現為何並且如何勝過男生,同時進入大學取得學位比例的也大量超過男生。然而,作者謙虛地將問題維持在議題上,並且避免無憑據地宣稱女性在社會已佔主導地位。

 

這使得我們能以合理的方式談論一個重要問題:美國失敗的教育系統無法幫助多數學生達到其自身的學術潛力。我們不認為女性有教育過度的問題。即使在白人當中,女性和男性一樣,其大學畢業的比率皆低於其他教育先進的社會(包含美國)。然而,我們擁有一個使得男性表現差於女性的不正常教育系統。

 

 

雖然在今日比起男性,女性更有可能由大學畢業並獲得高等學位,但這也無法暗指將來女性工資和經濟權力(更不用說政治權力)能超越男性。進一步來說,女性教育優勢並非大到得以克服勞工市場的男性優勢。

 

 

發行單位:國立成功大學學務處 性別平等教育委員會/性別與婦女研究中心
執行單位:國立成功大學性別與婦女研究中心/性別平等教育委員會
指導委員:曹玫蓉、楊芳枝
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